Friday, September 20, 2019

Consumer Behavior In Malaysia Marketing Essay

Consumer Behavior In Malaysia Marketing Essay As many researchers have been asserted that good store image of retail stores able mean the success or failure of the business. This review will focus on the variables that the further study will centre on. This focus and previous research conclusions will be included in the chapters of the store image where the variables are integrated. 2.1 Consumer Behavior in Malaysia Malaysias consumer lifestyle has been evolving and changing due in part to rising affluence and education levels. High profile international retailers and the global mass media have also played a hand in shaping consumer-buying behavior. Malaysians are becoming more westernized, sophisticated and cosmopolitan. Malaysians spend a high percentage of their household income on food, groceries and personal care items, ranking third out of the ten major economies in the Asia-Pacific region (excluded Japan). According to ACNielsen, Malaysians on average spent MYR505 per month on food and groceries, with just under half of that on fresh food like meat, fruits and vegetables. Since the emergence of the foreign-owned hypermarkets, Malaysians who live in urban areas have become accustomed to shopping for groceries at hypermarkets and supermarkets. Meanwhile rural people continue to purchase from traditional grocers, convenience stores and mini-marts. High and middle-income households spend most of their money at hypermarkets, followed by supermarkets and traditional grocery stores. The high-income group has household income of more than MYR3500 per month. 2.2 Retail Store Growth and Evolution Large-size store becomes a trend in the global. Hypermarkets are one of the manifestations of organized retailing. Srivastava (2008) observes that organized retailing, globally, has played a major role in nations GDP and employment. According to Srivastava, the ratio (composition) of organized versus traditional retailing is increasing in countries such as the US (85:15), Taiwan (81:19), Malaysia (55:45), Thailand (40:60), Indonesia (30:70), China (20:80), and India (3:97). The data in parenthesis describes the organized versus traditional ratio of retailing for each country. Offering large premises with both food and non-food items, everyday low prices (EDLP), and large car parks; the hypermarket format has been in existence for more than 35 years since the inauguration of Carrefour (the first French hypermarket) on 15 June 1963 (Roberts, 2005). The phenomenal success of hypermarkets in France affected other formats so adversely that certain legal restrictions were imposed on them. To counter the restrictions, the internationalization of French hypermarkets began in the 1970s, when Carrefour went global to countries such as Spain, Brazil and Argentina (Roberts, 2005). Carrefour along with other leading French chains such as Euromarche, Auchan and Leclerc subsequently marked their presence in the US market too between 1985 and 1993 (Roberts, 2005). The evolution of hypermarkets was quite revolutionary and their growth rate far surpassed the traditional formats in different parts of the world. In Spain, the number of traditional outlets dedicated to the retail food business fell by almost 50% between 1980 and 1995, where hypermarkets and supermarkets multiplied 6 and 11 respectively during that period (Flavian and Polo, 1998). In a similar manner, Taiwans traditional farmers markets disappeared at rates between 3-5% per year with the opening of at least 100 new supermarkets and 50 new hypermarkets all over Taiwan between 1988 and 1996 (Chang and Tu, 2005). Supermarkets and hypermarkets almost doubled to 941 from 544 in the Czech Republic too, in a time span of seven years, acquiring 55% of total retail sales (Healey Baker, 2002). 2.3 Store Formats 2.3.1 Hypermarket Hypermarket has clearly emerged as one of the most important retailing entity in most countries, offsetting the traditional and supermarket (Barros, 2006). Malaysian had her first hypermarkets opened for business in 1994. According to the Economic Transformation Programme announced in October 2010, Malaysia has 121 hypermarkets, included Giant, Tesco, Carrefour, Mydin. The general rule for one hypermarket is for every 250,000 people. The evolution of the various retail formats, in one way or the other, customers benefit by having greater access and choice. The concept of all the items under one roof has been submitted to different customers and have brought some changes in their preferences and behavior. With the presence of hypermarkets, customer expectations have changed and their importance to the acquisition have been affected (Oruc N, 2005); Terblanche and Boshoff, 2004; Vignali et al., 2001). Expectations and preferences, was different in different cultural environments, the study aimed to study the perceptions of consumers and their preferences on the store image of traditional wet markets and hypermarkets. 2.3.2 Traditional Wet Market A traditional wet market is an open food market, it is also called as traditional market (Wordie, 2002). The main features of the market have been traditionally associated with a place that sells live animals. The raw meat may include poultry, fish, reptiles, and so on. Depending on the region, the animals are usually caged and killed for the preparation. Fresh fruits and vegetables are also available. Wet markets usually include butchers and fish markets, which are in a separate section of the fruit and vegetable stalls. The highest hygiene standards of supermarkets have forced many traditional markets to operate in the interior. In general, the owner of a wet market, owns and maintains the building. The stalls are rented to retailers, who buy and sell their products independently. This is in contrast to a hyper store operated by a single company. In 2011, a total of 23 traditional wet markets and 3075 stalls inside the traditional wet markets in Penang Island are belong to Penang Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang, MPPP). 2.4 Store image Store image can be described as a concept of the way of consumers see a store in their mind, regarding touchable or untouchable attributes. It is a way of the store being defined in the consumers mind, partly is functional qualities of the store and partly is the atmosphere of psychological attributes of the store (Martineau, 1958). The store image will affect the shoppers buying behavior and this was a conceptualization with included store attributes by the researchers (James et. Al, 1976). Besides that, store image is also described as the concept of combination of consumers or shoppers perceptions of a store on different attributes (Bloemer and Ruyter, 1998). There are several researchers ever tried to identify the store attributes as these are the foundation of the overall image of the store. According to Lindquist (1974), store image have 9 elements, included vending, consumer, facilities, service, comfort, promotion, atmosphere, institutional and post transaction satisfaction. Later on, Doyle and Fenwick (1974) simplified and categorized the store image to 5 elements: price, product, variety, styling and location. While addition attributes of parking facilities and friendly personnel has been put forward by Bearden (1978). According McGoldrick (1990), the image is the indicator of the asset value of the branding, it corresponds with the long-run result of retailing activities. The understanding of the relationship between image and buying behavior of consumers are very important for better strategies in attracting consumers. 2.5 Consumers perception On Store Image 2.5.1 Variety of Goods The main attraction of the retail store is the trading of the goods. According Lindquist (1974), the main components of trading goods are quality, variety and selection of the goods. The stores which provide variety of goods will never lose its attraction. According Golledge et al. (1966), assortment or variety of the goods offers shoppers with more choices and enhances the ability of the stores to satisfy their needs. This makes them unnecessary to visit different stores to fulfill their needs. Based on this reason, a large size of stores such as supermarket or hypermarket has advantage in the retail sector, this kind of store able provide variety choice to consumers and makes them has benefit in reducing their time in visiting different stores (Huff, 1962). Thus, the stores which are able to provide variety and assortment of goods and services have their advantage to attract more consumers and to be preferred by the consumers as well. 2.5.2 Store Atmosphere Atmospheric of a retail store is a very important element. Atmospherics of retail store is the effort to design retail environments to produce specific emotional effects in the consumer that enhance his buying probability (Kotler, 1974). Ghosh (1994) found that atmospherics of store refers to the environment that is brought about by a coordinated visual display of goods and the ease of accessibility and mobility within the retail store. Moreover, Donovan and Rossiter (1982) assert that the physical surrounding will produce an emotional reaction and directly affected the consumers buying behavior. Thus, atmospheric of store becomes a strategy of the retailers, providing a favorable environment with spacious space, clean and comfortable, lighting and so on to affected shopping behavior of consumers. Thus, atmospheric of store is a key factor in stimulating consumers perception and retail store with attractive atmosphere increase preference of consumers. 2.5.3 Quality of Service Consumer patronage of retail stores often extends beyond the impact of the acquisition of goods. Bitner et al. (1994) describes the visiting of consumer to retail stores usually considers as a recreational activity whose dignity is enhanced by the level of service within the store. Thus, the quality of service has great affected to the consumers buying behavior (Shycon, 1992). As describe by Lindquist (1974), service includes giving information of goods, answering to consumer question, showing the goods location and so on. With providing this kind of service, consumers are able to find the goods and service in the retailer store in shorter time. Reynolds and Beatty (1999) asserted that service or retail store is to strengthen the relationship between retail store and consumer, it encourage them prefer to visit the store again in the future. 2.5.4 Accessibility of Retail Store Retail stores that are ease on accessible able to reduce the travel time between home and stores. Consumers time and effort in obtaining the service convenience will influence their buying behavior (Grewal et al., 2002). Eppli and Shilling (1996) described the easier the retail store be accessible, the more preferred by the consumers. The location of retail store can be determined whether the establishment of the store success or failure. Retail stores that provide car parks may have larger catchment to adjacent area to the consumers who own private vehicle, as Lindquist (1974) assert that accessibility as having a convenient location and this includes parking facilities. While stores which are equipped bus stops will increase the accessibility as well. Thus, better accessibility of retail store able to reduce the travel time and fewer barrier is likely to be preferred by consumers. 2.5.5 Price of Goods Compare to the promotion and goods variety, the influences of price to consumer shopping behavior have less important (Fox et al., 2004). On the other hand, Sieder and Costley (1994), assert a different point of view, they observed that pricing is a major determinant of store choice in the retail store shopping context. According to their study, the result reported that perception of goods pricing inter-related with their preference in choosing a store. Most of the consumer will take consideration of the pricing of the goods before going to shop at a particular retail store. Price is a determinant in store choice and to be a key factor of patronage motivations, this study was also linked the pricing policies to consumers perception and shopping behavior. 2.5.6 Quality of Goods Retail stores have an image of providing goods in better or lower quality and have influenced the decision which is made by consumer as where to go (Schiffman et al., 2007). The pricing of the goods is inter-related with design of the physical environment of the retail store, product variety, and service and so on. Alba et al. (1994) assert that a study of comparative pricing strategies found that buyers prefer to buy in the store that offers discount on a smaller number of products (for example, the frequency of price advantage) that have lower prices for overall compare to a store which is offering bigger discounts on a small number of items (eg, the magnitude of price advantage). 2.5.7 Store Displays Store displays were in purpose for promotion in older time. Nowadays, the store displays have new role for effective displays. Bell and Ternus (2002) described that store displays have been discovered new role in displaying product information, helping the shopper in making decisions, and creating attractive shopping environment.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Education as a Part of the Harlem Renaissance Essay -- Harlem Renaissa

Education as a Part of the Harlem Renaissance In 1917, the United States found itself buried in a conflict with many different nations. Labeled as World War I, the United States goal was to support the fight for democracy across the world. As the war progressed, there was a need to fulfill many jobs due to the labor shortages that the North had been experiencing. To be more exact, the North received a major labor blow, due to the large enlistment of men into the Army. The draft also helped to cripple the labor supply of the North. The fact that the North was primarily industry based, caused many jobs to become vacant, and created an extremely high demand for an immediate labor force. Large numbers of African Americans migrated from the South to the North in response to the need for a steady labor force, and in hopes of finding economic growth. As World War I ended, many more African Americans migrated from the south to the north due to an overwhelmingly large amount racial tension in the aftermath of the war. This great mig ration of African Americans, from the south to the north led to black settlements in some of the larger northern industrial cities, such as Washington D.C., Philadelphia, and New York. In about 1920, many of the African Americans who had moved to the north from the south were beginning to embrace the concept of the â€Å"New Negro†, which was a movement that was not only a social revolt against racism, but also served as a literary movement, as well as redefined African American expression. This movement better known as the Harlem Renaissance was a key contributor to African Americans, and the way that their roles changed in the United States, on the road to equal rights as well as economic equality. The Harlem Renaissance will forever be remembered as the turning point in African American culture, as well as their place in America today. Harlem Renaissance An era of written and artistic creativity among African Americans that occurred after World War I, and lasted until the middle of the 1930’s depression; This is the definition that you would probably get for the Harlem Renaissance if you looked it up in a book, but the Harlem Renaissance was much more than that. The Harlem Renaissance was an expression of redefined African Americans who felt a sense of self-pride, and promoted the celebration of their African American herita... ...erature was written with such intricate writing methods, and complex undertones. The works of the period were a tough read. Many black felt the nee to be informed on what was going on in their communities. Many black journals, and magazines published and owned by black intellectuals kept blacks abreast on what was going on in the cities. Another influence of Education was an influx of black immigration from the West Indies during the 1920's. This immigration was in result of many of the Caribbean people thinking that there was a chance of greater prosperity, as well as opportunity in the United States, than in their country. New York soon began to become a center for immigration into the United States. Unlike many of the southern blacks that migrated to the north after World War I, there was almost no illiteracy amongst the immigrants. They were described as being sober-minded, and having a genius for business enterprise.† Furthermore it was mentioned that, â€Å"one-third of the city's Negro professionals, physicians, dentists, and lawyers were foreign born." Education made the Harlem renaissance a learning experience, and paved the way for other black intellectuals to emerge.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay --

The role of World Bank in the international political economy and its impact on the poverty. Zartashia Jahangir (15192) Muneeba Tariq (15389) Summyia Tanveer (15647) Khadija Bibi (15213) Vision (World Bank Mission Statement): "The World Bank Group, passion and professionalism for lasting results with is to fight poverty - from the production of resources to help themselves and to their environment, the ability to share knowledge construction, and private sector partners to build publican.† Introduction: IMF, World Bank and WTO in the global economy has been the central pillar, and called them "the architect of the global economy." In fact the IMF and the World Bank Bretton Woods conference established in 1944. The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty. ï  ¶ IBRD- Industrial Bank for Reconstruction & Development. ï  ¶ IDA-International Development Association. ï  ¶ IFC- International Finance Corporation. ï  ¶ MIGA-Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. ï  ¶ ICSID-International Centre for Settlement of Disputes. The World Bank roads, power plants , schools, dams , bridges , ports and other " infrastructure " projects as governments to finance long -term loans makes . Countries â€Å"structural adjustment programs â€Å"(SAPs) have agreed to accept the World Bank will extend loans only. SAPs democratic debtor countries by people who are not decided upon. The former colonial world is forced down the throats of people. To pay off the debt, the World Bank demand government’s public assets and companies (privatization), and health care, education, childcare, and cutting spending on social services like pensions by selling off state funds. U.S. and other developed capitalist countries, policies workers both directly and indire... ...ased on poverty reduction, the country's financial and economic situation, with detailed analysis of a cross section of local groups by combining a World Bank strategy unique to the country in question. If the government’s priorities and identify targets for poverty reduction and the World Bank’s aid efforts correspondingly Aligns this. Forty- five countries " aid for the world's poorest countries ", in which the distribution of loans to poor countries, the World Bank's International Development Association ( IDA ) is a U.S. $ 25.1 billion in promised aid . Rich countries, occasional illnesses, including their support for their projects , funds and IDA recipient of criticism , although Robert B. Zoà « lick , World Bank president , was announced on 15 December 2007 loans when they said though that IDA money " poorest developing countries that rely on the basic grant ."

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Nuclear Waste Management position at Ontario

As a second year student at the University of Toronto, majoring in Environmental Science, I am excited to be applying to the Ontario Power Generation. This is an excellent opportunity to apply my knowledge and skills while gaining practical work experience and further understanding the science behind it. I believe that I would be a great fit given my background, thirst for experience, and never-ending enthusiasm, and I would appreciate the opportunity to contribute this company. Throughout my schooling, as a science student, I have had a great deal of practice in the raw technical skills needed in data management and handing dangerous materials. Laboratories hold a strict code of conduct for safety procedures, and expect quick and efficient work with little error. This has given me acute attention to detail, even with a time limit. My time spent in laboratories has also forced me to gain good understanding of Microsoft office suite and statistics, as many of the reports require manipulation and interpretation of mass amounts of data. Cooperation is also a necessary skill I have perfected in laboratories, as many are performed in pairs; however I also retain the ability to perform alone effectively, and complete my work independently. Also, as a science student, I have a good background understanding of the concepts behind nuclear waste management. In addition to a chemistry, physics, and the three main principles of concentrate and contain, dilute and disperse, and delay and decay, I also understand cultural perspectives and challenges of this field. Throughout my career I have been heavily involved in the community, which has given me a strong work ethic, and excellent interpersonal skills I own today . In High School, I was a part-time cashier, in a fast-paced environment , and in direct interaction with customers . Through this I developed the professionalism and customer service initiative needed to excel in a service job, as well as acute problem solving skills for everything from computer issues to customer complaints, and an efficient work ethic. Perhaps my favourite, and most rewarding experience, however has been my volunteer time at Habitat for Humanity. It was an opportunity to step outside of my comfort zone , and though the work was difficult at first, I kept with it, and was greatly rewarded . I have since maintained a proactive, hands-on, and enthusiastic attitude in all areas of my life, especially when facing new challenges. Both opportunities have also allowed me to understand, and seek that balance between hard work, and efficiency, while also reaping the benefits of teamwork, and companionship with one’s coworkers. I sincerely believe that my skill set and background would be an asset to Ontario Power Generation, and my enthusiasm and teamwork would fit perfectly in the fabric of this company. Thank you for your time and consideration, and I look forward to meeting you and discussing how I can become a part of the OPG team.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Terrorists Groups In The Middle East Essay

What have been the most common tactics/weapons and threats used by terrorists/terror groups in the Middle East since 9/11/01? The most common tactics/weapons and threats used by terrorists/terror group in the Middle East since 9/11 are bombings which can include car bombs, improvised explosive devices (IED’s), suicide attacks and explosives. Next we have rocket and mortar attacks, vehicle based attacks which is when they used any motor vehicle to run over people walking or to ram into vehicles. Other common ones are hi-jacking planes, chemical and biological weapons, nuclear weapons, conventional firearms and secondary attacks which are when they have a second type of weapon go off after the original so as to injure the emergency response team. In your opinion, are these tactics, weapons, and threats successful from a terrorist perspective? Why or why not? Explain in detail. Yes I do believe they are successful because they accomplish at minimum what they set out to do. Placing fear and causing panic among the masses is so apparent for terrorists, because how much media attention there is they can watch and enjoy their terror. They have us on the edge of our seats when chaos takes place. They catch us off guard and that too is part of their plan. What do you see as the likelihood of a terrorist organization either acquiring or building a nuclear weapon? Explain in detail. I see the likelihood of a terrorist organization either acquiring or building a nuclear weapon as pretty high likelihood. I do not think for one minute that they are incapable. I do not believe that our government is honest with who we do business with. They have what is called suitcase nukes and they are so small they can fit into a suitcase. Money talks and can buy you anything besides permanent happiness. If you have enough money you can buy materials for a nuclear weapon. If obtained, what do you think would be the top three types of targets on U.S. soil? Explain. I think that businesses, diplomatic offices, and military institutions are the three types of targets on U.S. soil. The first type of target would be businesses. Businesses account for thirty one and a half percent of frequency of attacks. The second type is diplomatic offices and that takes up twenty six percent of frequency of attacks. Last of the targets are military personnel. The United States armed forces can account for nearly forty three percent of attacks against military organizations. What do you think are the factors working in their favor and against their success to obtain WMDs? Explain in detail and be  specific. The factors that I think that the factors that are working in their favor are that they IED’s that can be constructed out of common materials that are easy to obtain. They have eager and loyal followers that have no problem sacrificing their lives for the cause such as suicide bombings and using children as distractions or bait. It is also hard to dif ferentiate the civilians from the terrorists. What is working against their success is the United States has specialized trained elite forces with intelligence gathering techniques. They also have the latest technologize and weaponry such as drones, night vision goggles, tanks, snipers and much more to work against the success of the terrorists. References Kaplan, E. (2006, Sep). Targets for Terrorists: Post-9/11 Aviation Security. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/targets-terrorists-post-911- aviation-security/p11397 McCann, Joseph T., 2006, Terrorism on American Soil: A Concise History of Plots and Perpetrators from the Famous to the Forgotten, Sentient Publ. (Boulder, CO). Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com/books Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Ch. 5 pp. 158-161. Retrieved November 22, 2013, from http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Ray Lewis Leadership Essay

A leader is a person who has the ability to lead or command an entire group of people, a leader is someone who is followed by other people. Being a leader is a wonderful privilege, it is something that is not necessarily handed to an individual nor is it something that can be bought, leadership is something that is earned. This entire course we have been learning about and discussing various characteristics of effective leaders. Some of those characteristics included confidence, charisma, courage, heart, perseverance, and among many others. This paper will focus primarily on one individual who exemplifies these traits and many other characteristics which contributes greatly to his success as a leader. The person that has been selected for the basis of this paper is Ray Lewis, a twelve year pro-bowl selection linebacker from the Baltimore Ravens. The reason I have chosen Lewis for this paper is because of the qualities he has as a leader not only on the playing field, but off of it as well. He is what I believe to be the best and most motivational and inspirational player in the National Football League today, maybe even all sports. The object of this paper is to elaborate on Lewis’ characteristics and provide an explanation of his leadership style and why they are effective. This paper will begin by giving an in depth analysis of Ray. After the analysis it will then move into discussing Ray’s styles of leadership. After talking about Lewis’ styles it will then begin going through all his characteristics as a leader and what makes him stand out as a leader, in other words, I will explain why Ray Lewis is such a powerful and effective leader and the reason he stands out to people other than his organization. Ray Lewis is a professional football player who is currently in his 17th season playing for the Baltimore Ravens in the National Football League. Lewis, born on May 15th 1975, ranks him amongst one of the oldest current players in the league. Even at age thirty-seven Lewis manages to still be one of the most dominant forces in the game today even while competing with and against athletes who are nearly half of his age. Seasoned but experienced, Lewis still has much to offer his team regardless of his age. Statistically Lewis still remains up near the top of the list. In seventeen seasons Lewis has won multiple individual awards as well as team awards during his time in the NFL. Lewis has been selected to thirteen pro-bowl appearances in his seventeen year career. Essentially the pro-bowl is a nation wide vote on what players go to an all-star game, the players who are selected are deemed the best at their position during that year. Lewis has also been selected as the best defensive player in football in two of those seasons, which earned him the Defensive Player of the Year award in 2000 and 2003. In 2000, the Baltimore Ravens lead by Lewis were underdogs in the biggest game of the year, the Superbowl. The Baltimore Ravens won that game 34-7 over the New York Giants to clinch the perfect end to their season. Lewis became only the second linebacker to win the MVP award for his performance in that game. Adding to his collection of individual awards was the ultimate award of National champions after winning the Superbowl. Since 1996 Lewis has started 228 regular season games and 17 playoff games. In those 228 games he has recorded 2,061 tackles, 41 sacks (times tackled the Quarterback), 31 interceptions, and 3 defensive touchdowns. These numbers are a clear representative of how dominant Ray can be on the field as well as what a long and powerful career he has had thus far. Not only do these numbers say that he has had a great career, but it shows that Lewis has credibility behind everything he says on and off the field. Before getting into the leadership styles of Ray Lewis, I want to provide a historical background of him in order to give a brief idea of Ray’s childhood and where he came from. Ray Anthony Lewis was born on May 15th 1975 in Bartow, which is a small city in Central Florida. His mother Sunseria Smith, had Ray at a very early age of 15. His father walked out on both Ray and his mother while they were in the hospital without his new born baby even having a name. The first time he ever saw his father face to face was when Ray was just shy of a year old. The abandoning of Ray by his father played a tremendous role and had a large impact on his life as the time went by. He believes his fathers absence in his life actually helped shaped him as a man and made him the character that he is today. Growing up, Ray witnessed many things in life that effected him individually in a way that would alter the path of his life. As the years went on, Ray still without a father, began to play sports as a kid. He found his calling in football when he was told by multiple coaches that he had a natural talent and was extremely gifted. The problem was that Ray had no one to tell at home. His mother was constantly working, she maintained three jobs to keep the house over their head and food on the table. Every time he did something great in life his father was never there. When he graduated from highschool, his father was still not there. When he accepted a scholarship to Miami University in the spring of 1993, his father yet again failed to show his son support. The reason this is important and relevant to Ray’s characteristics of a good quality leader is because it is the spark behind his motivation. â€Å"I was pissed off† was the answer Lewis gave the interviewer when asked how he felt about his situation with his father (E:60. Ray Lewis, 2012). He explained how his fathers absence in his childhood angered him, and confused him. He often wondered how someone could create life and just leave it behind like nothing ever happened. The pain that Ray was receiving from all the broken promises, lack of time spent with his father, and being the only man in the house growing up was all turned into a positive energy for him. The reason that his father is a popular topic thus far is because of how he created the man that Ray Lewis is based on the fact he left him alone. â€Å"I turned pain into my friend. The only ever way to defeat pain, is to recognize that pain exists. That’s the only ever way you will beat pain. Because pain comes in every second of our lives† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis, 2011). What he meant by turning pain into his friend was that he would use that â€Å"pain† that his father bestowed upon him to motivate and drive himself every day by working out. â€Å"Sometimes I would do pushups and situps until I cried because I wanted to beat him so bad! I wouldn’t stop, I promised myself I would never stop† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis, 2011). Much of Ray’s success in training came from the drive he had from the pain he suffered. When he was in highschool one of his coaches handed him a yearbook and told him to turn to the sports page. On that page was a picture of Ray’s father Ernie. The next page had a list of records for every sport, in the number one slot for record holders was Ray’s fathers name. He made a promise to himself that he wouldn’t stop training, he would never give up no matter what, and he would continue to fight through the pain until his fathers name was gone off of those records. Every time he took over a record, he crossed his fathers name off of the record list. The past of Ray Lewis is the reason for why he is the leader that he is today. Growing up with a single mother, Ray witnessed his mother in many broken relationships. As a child, there were multiple occasions where Ray saw his mother with bruised arms, black eyes, cut up faces and other signs of domestic abuse from failed relationship. Another motivation he had for working so hard was to make sure that â€Å"No man, ever, ever put his hands on my mother again or family again† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis, 2011). This mentality Ray had would continue on for the rest of his life. He developed the skills necessary for fulfilling the leadership role at a very early age. All of this makes it very easy to see as to why Ray Lewis has developed the characteristics necessary for being an independent, trustworthy, never going to quit, hard working, and passionate individual. I could go on and on about characteristics, virtue, and other good qualities Ray possesses and we will eventually get there. The next part of this paper is going to examine Ray in the modern era, and look at his leadership styles and why they are so effective as well as examine the possibilities as to why he is so well respected as a leader. â€Å"I’m a natural born leader† Ray admits, he constantly reminds people that if they follow him he will take them to greatness (America’s Game: 2000 Baltimore Ravens). This section will focus primarily on leadership, and why Ray is a great example of exemplary leadership and what styles he uses for leading his organization. The first style of Ray that will be mentioned is his ability to lead by example. This type of leadership according to the EIL module is considered â€Å"modelling the way† which essentially means paving the path for teammate’s and/or the organization by leading by example. In the National Football League players are considered the best of the best at what they do, being confident is hardly an issue, but being the best does not necessarily mean that they work or play like they are the best. Essentially what I mean is that it is very easy for people who are good at something to not think that they need to continue working to get better. Yet it is very hard to not give a hundred percent at something when the entire atmosphere of the organization is doing the same thing. However, when there is that one person who is constantly trying to outwork everyone and never settles for anything less than a hundred percent it is very difficult for the entirety of the team and/or organization to continue slacking or not giving it their best effort. This type of leader forces to people to want to do well by consistently working to the best of their abilities and never quitting. When talking about Lewis and his ability to lead it is important to look at how he handles situations of adversity. Every person, team, and organization has at one point in their existence faced a matter of adversity or been in some situation where they had to climb their way out of a struggle. The year 2000, marked a major transition in Ray Lewis’ life. That year Ray was facing adversity as an individual for he was accused of murder after his involvement in a bar fight one Saturday night (Beyond the Glory 2004). The charges were dropped and Ray was considered wrongfully accused, however, even though proven innocent this still did not help his image in any way, shape or form. Those who knew Ray closest knew he was not about violence and never believed it was true. That year the Ravens were playing an away game against the Tennessee Titans. Ray Lewis was being introduced and as he was coming through the tunnel the fans were yelling vulgar, offensive, and racist comments towards him. They were shouting â€Å"You black son of a bitch† and other racial slurs towards Lewis. His team mate Trent Dilfer noted that the way Lewis reacted to that was amazing, he did not act out of anger or say anything back. He simply proved to his team that no matter what someone says to you â€Å"you always have to move on† and never stop fighting. Lewis did just that, he used what these fans were yelling at him and turned it into positive energy, leading the Ravens to a victory over the Titans that game (Americas Game: 2000 Baltimore Ravens). The team had his back, and once they saw how Lewis was transitioning the negativity into a positive they followed his lead. Lewis was known for making a claim and backing it up. He would constantly repeat himself about how he is going to win this game for his team, as long as they follow his lead and have his back because he will always have theirs. He would never allow himself to fail on the field, he would back up all of his words with actions and that made him an effective individual that people could put their trust in. He did just that, in 2000 he led the league with 137 recorded tackles, 3 interceptions, and 3 sacks (LLC 2000). The importance of leading by example goes hand in hand with the individuals ability to be an influential, motivation, and inspirational one as well. This leadership style is also known as â€Å"encouraging the heart.† This style of leadership is actually what Lewis is most known for, the way he can inspire his teammate’s with words of wisdom and words of truth. Lewis can capture the minds of many of his team by simply talking to them. He enables people to want to do well and gives them a whole new confidence that mentally prepares them for something important. Anytime that Lewis felt his team was becoming shy of hope, and losing faith, he would be the one to get them back up on their feet and make them believe nothing is impossible. Before every game Ray gathers his teammate’s together to provide them with mental energy. Usually he begins by telling them that they should never settle for anything less than their best. He always reminds them why they are where they are today, and how they need to take advantage of every opportunity that appears. He constantly reminds them that he will be there for them when they are in a moment of despair. Any time they are feeling like they cannot move on they will be reignited with him giving it his all. â€Å"I am not telling you something for the benefit of myself, I am telling you something for the benefit of us† (America’s Game: 2000 Baltimore Ravens). The intriguing thing about Lewis is that he understands when it is time to talk, and when it is time no listen. As credible of a player he is, Lewis still respects every time his coaches or players have something to say. â€Å"The most surprising things I have discovered about Ray upon first meeting him was how quiet he really is. Lewis rarely opens his mouth and is usually found in the background quietly watching and observing everything that goes on in a meeting. Wisely, Lewis is very selective about when he chooses to deliver a vocal message. But when he does, everyone listens† (Riddle, 2012). Those times that he chooses to open his mouth he delivers powerful messages that force people to believe in something greater than what they think they see. The following passage is a speech given by Ray Lewis to his team and coaches in the hotel a night before their AFC championship game: â€Å"We have been here before, we done been here 3 years in a row! N’ we let this time off the hook. Make sure that you own it tonight and do not let them take you away from this moment man! Cuz this is all we got. That’s what ya’ll don’t realize most of the time, that we gonna get this again. We gonna get this again, the car runs too fast. That’s why we got to savour these moments cuz of right now. I couldn’t understand that when I was 24 and 25. That’s why God had to incarcerate me so I could see how great my blessing was that he gave me. So I had to come from a jail being in position, to then step onto a Superbowl podium man. I don’t do this for me, I just watch enough film so that I can put myself in position to make my defence the best damn defence in football. That’s why I come back every year. We are not letting this team get out of here this time. That’s what we here for, a W! And when we get off the bus tomorrow, we get off it with a swagger, a swagger that says.. Done!† Lewis was known for his â€Å"we not me† mentality that inspired many people to want to play with him, for him, and for the team. A distinct story stood out about this man. It was a the beginning of a new season, Lewis and the Ravens were about to take the field. Patiently waiting in their locker room stalls, nervous and anxious, all of these players have one goal in mind, to win the game. All of a sudden, just minutes before it was time. Lewis stands up, and pulls out a bottle of what looks to be muscle reliever of some sort. He begins to go up to every single person in that locker room. One by one he dabs his finger in this bottle, and briefly touches each individual on the head. As he is doing so he is whispering something different to each of his teammate’s. What he is doing is essentially blessing all of his teammate’s. He is praying for their safety and courage. â€Å"It was as if he injected every man in that locker room with synthesized courage† (Riddle, 2012). This highly motivated his team, a new found inspiration was giving to his teammate’s that night. This event touched many of Lewis’ teammate’s in many different ways. They all believed that they were one unit, one team, one family, because they had a father and mentor that they knew would always keep them safe. Lewis is well known for encouraging the hearts of other players, making them feel capable of succeeding. He is especially effective when the morale of the team is at a low because he feeds off of his players emotions, he understands how to motivate his teammate’s both mentally and physically. As motivation as Ray Lewis is the list of qualities and styles does not end at motivational. One of the most stand out styles and characteristics of an individual leader is his or her ability to inspire a team based on a vision. This is one style that Lewis takes to heart and is exceptionally great at doing. He has the ability to inspire a team based off a shared vision, which is his vision that inspires the rest of the organization. Ray Lewis is know for his passion for the game, and an even bigger passion for being the best possible person he can be as a man of God. This mentality also influences how he thinks as an athlete. Recently, he was asked to participate in an interview with hall of fame player Deion Sanders during the playoffs. Ray asked them if they could hold off until next week insinuating that his team will win the upcoming game and move on to the next round of the playoffs. â€Å"Some call it cockiness, I call it confidence† the two chuckled over Ray’s remarks because of how confident he was in his team to be successful. Ray’s mentality was simple, he claimed that he was never in it to fail. â€Å"See I’m not going to lose, I’m not in it to lose. That’s just a fact. I never strap up my helmet to go lose. And honestly, that’s a vision. And that’s the thing, get everybody seeing that same vision.. and if you do, man that’s rough beating a man with a vision, beating a man who see’s something† (Beyond the Glory 2004). This mentality Ray had stated would go on much further than just words that he thought of on the spot. He preaches to his team about being one unit, thinking a like, having the same mind set day in and day out, because if that is the case then they truly will be unstoppable. He preaches about being â€Å"one heart beat, one mind† and that essentially means that they live and die as one, there is no individuals. Essentially, if one person makes a mistake everyone is accountable, and this went for off the field situations as well as on the field decisions as well. Lewis inspired his team to be smart, play with each other, and especially most importantly learn to love each other. Lewis said that if you are not playing for each other than you will never amount to anything great. It is more beneficial to play selfless than to play selfishly. Reason being is because his whole vision is that â€Å"the only path to success, is the one that we take together. There is no other way. If we all believe in the same thing and have the same vision, then we will truly be powerful, and no one can take that away from us.† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis 2011). In 2011, Ray suffered a broken toe injury that sidelined him for several weeks. Instead of acting upset like how most athletes act, he instead used the adversity and turned it into a positive for his teammates.ï€  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Adversity defines true character. If one of us is hurting, the other part gotta pick it up† This is the message he told his team the following game while he was talking to them before their game. He emphasizes that having a team believe in the same goal will ultimately advance a program and organization to new heights, in order to be successful all must be on board when making the right choices for accomplishing a goal. Those types of leadership mentioned earlier in this paper actually compliment the next style which is challenging the process. This style basically means never settling for anything. Always going after target. When one goal is accomplished, another one is added to the board. Lewis is a firm believer that there is only one way, and that is up. And there will continue to only be one up until he stops playing the game when he retires. After Lewis and the Baltimore Ravens won the championship in 2000, Lewis was talking about it is great to celebrate, but other teams are already training to take down the Baltimore Ravens next year, and their goal is be right there at their very moment again (America’s Game: 2000 Baltimore Ravens). Even in his workouts it is evident that he continues to push himself passed his limits because settling for mediocre and at a certain level is not what makes an individual great. Growing up, every accomplishment Ray ever had he would always tell himself that it isn’t enough. He wanted more, and he would continue to make new goals after every one was accomplished. This mentality would benefit his career as a professional. He continuously emphasizes the importance of hard work, and will. The will to keep going when everything is good can often be more difficult then when everything is bad. When something is going well you tend to think you are doing alright and do not need to keep striving for more, Lewis understands that if this is the case then he will never be truly as great as he could be if he believes that is true. A question that often rises when talking about Ray Lewis is where does all this energy and motivation come from? What is he like outside the game of football? Well, as was mentioned earlier Lewis has come from a broken home, fatherless, with a mother who was full time working two different jobs. His childhood is what fueled him to be great. Especially with situations such as domestic violence that Ray saw a very young age it is no question where his motivation to be a good person comes from. When his father left him he could not grasp an understanding as to why a father would bail like that on his new born baby. â€Å"Why cant a daddy be a daddy to a child who had no choice to be here today, why would someone leave that child.† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis 2011). This was the reason why he not having a dad developed Ray’s mindset. â€Å"I didn’t know who to call daddy,† he worked because of that, he used to cry during workouts because of that mindset that, pain is nothing. Ray Lewis today has six children of his own â€Å"4 kings, and two queens, and I have never had a greater push in my life than to see my children smile.† ( A Football Life: Ray Lewis 2011). This along side many of the people he met later in life would go on to be a reason why he is the man that he is today. Ray got involved with an individual who was suffering from a disease that was life threatening. Bill Warble was Lewis’ biggest fan, an elderly man who promise Ray he would not leave this earth until they won another championship. Ray says that he owes Bill his life. He taught him a valuable lesson on life, which contributed much to his reasoning as a leader and how to act. Bill Warble had taught him â€Å"what to complain about, what not to complain about, what not to be sad about, what to be glad, sad, mad and happy about.† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis 2011). This changed his perspective on life for the better as Lewis began to see things in his own life a lot clearer. Ray Lewis will go down in history as one of the greatest linebacker’s to ever play in the National Football League, along with that claim he will also go down as one of the best leader’s on any sports team as well. For all who have played with him, got a chance to meet him, knew him outside of the game, all of those people knew the real Ray Lewis and what he was capable of doing. â€Å"He was truly an inspiration and it was a pleasure to play along side Ray† (Riddle, 2011). Whether the team win’s or loses, Ray is never taking credit or placing the blame on anyone. He will forever live by his â€Å"one heart beat, one mind† mentality and will forever impact the lives of those who got a chance to play along side him. After their AFC championship loss in 2011 Ray was getting interviewed by reporters about what had happened. He got upset with the reporters for hinting towards the loss being solely on one player.â€Å"What you gonna do put that loss on two men? Oh, Evans should have caught the ball, oh Billy should have made the kick. Well, maybe I should have made that tackle in the third quarter. So anything could cost you, so there is no one person that you could ever put blame on. We came here as a team, we locked and loaded as a team, let’s make sure we leave as a team.† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis 2011). He went on after the game to tell his teammates in prayer that they did what they had to do, that next year they had to make sure they finished. He told his team it is no ones fault but their team combined effort. No one person gets the blame. He kept the morale as high up as he could in order to keep his team motivated for the following season, that this loss should burn into their memories for next year. Use it as fuel, turn that negative energy into something useful. â€Å"Let’s understand ourselves as men, and make somebody smile when we walk out of here† (A Football Life: Ray Lewis 2011). This is Ray Lewis, his impact and his legacy. â€Å"We get one opportunity in life, one chance at life to do whatever you’re going to do, and lay your foundation and make whatever mark you’re going to make. Whatever legacy you’re going to leave, leave your legacy!† — Ray Lewis Sources: Sabol, Ed. 2000. Ravens Road to the Superbowl (Documentary). NFL Films. United States. Sabol, Ed. 2011. A Football Life. â€Å"Ray Lewis† (Documentary). NFL Films. United States. Farrey, T. Nichols, R. Schaap, J. Smith, S. 2012. E:60 Ray Lewis (Interview). ESPN. United States. N.A. 2004. Beyond the Glory. â€Å"Ray Lewis† Season 4, ep. 9. (Documentary). United States. Riddle, Ryan. August 7th 2012. Bleacher Report (Article). Web. December 4th 2012.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Why I Want a Wife

Weddings are often a time of celebration, especially for my family. This past summer, as we prepared for my sister Gini’s wedding, the festivities extended to good-natured teasing of the bride- and groom-to-be. For example, WITH knowing smiles, my parents–self-proclaimed experts on marriage courtesy of their own wedding almost thirty years ago–dispensed advice about everything, including how to improve her cooking skills beyond instant rice and grilled cheese. Gini’s typical responses included â€Å"That was a long time ago,† â€Å"Things are different now; times have changed,† and â€Å"Jason can do a lot of things for himself. † It was with particular delight that my family took to rubbing in one of Jason’s smoother moves. He waited until a few short weeks before the wedding to inform Gini that his Mom had always done his ironing for him, and now he expected Gini to take over that task—after all, he couldn’t wear wrinkled clothes to his new job, could he? Poking fun at the responsibilities involved in marriage is similar to the attitude presented in Judy Brady’s 1971 essay, â€Å"Why I Want a Wife. † In â€Å"Why I Want a Wife,† Brady offers hypothetical criteria for an ideal wife in a satirical commentary on how the work of wives is often taken for granted. The humor of the essay lies in its structure: on the surface it seems to accept the criteria it puts forth, while the meaning actually operates in the recognition that the narrator is being sarcastic. Using writing as one of her tools for activism, Judy (Syfers) Brady has established herself as a supporter of the women’s movement since she began more than thirty years ago. In â€Å"Why I Want a Wife,† she narrates a setting that mocks the situations and obligations wives find themselves immersed in. The narrator draws on her own experiences to present examples of how â€Å"good† wives are expected to behave. The satirical critique emerges as the narrator thinks through her reasons for wanting a wife. The language used has a satirical edge evident in both the author’s emphasis on certain modifiers (indicated by italics) and in the surface structure of the sentences, which belies the underlying criticisms. The audience should recognize the sarcasm from the language and attitude of the narrator. Now let's consider all the elements supporting her satirical point, beginning with the author's long history with this style of writing. Judy (Syfers) Brady has established herself as a supporter of the women’s movement, and critics point to this essay as typical of her career. â€Å"Throughout the article, [Brady] lists characteristics that she would like in a wife†¦She never comes out and says that the way that women are treated in family situations is wrong. She implies it by sarcastically creating her ideal wife. This technique works because it forces readers to realize it for themselves† writes Diego Vasquez on a webpage titled â€Å"A Rhetorical Critique of ‘Why I Want a Wife. â€Å"2 Vasquez’s analysis includes the supposition that the essay first appeared in pamphlet form, and suggests that Brady was a â€Å"†¦radical feminist writing for other radical feminists. † Vasquez also notes that Brady is reported to have said, â€Å"I am married, am a housewife, and have two female children; all three of those factors keep my anger alive,† and that â€Å"[Brady] t ried to persuade other housewives to take a step back and look at how they were being exploited. † Judy Syfers Brady, who was born in 1931 and later studied at the University of Iowa, now lives in San Francisco. In 1972, â€Å"Why I Want a Wife† appeared in the first issue of â€Å"Ms. â€Å"3 Although at that time, few critics expected the magazine to last4, almost twenty years later it (re-) featured â€Å"Why I Want a Wife. â€Å"5 Another decade later, almost thirty years after the essay first appeared in Ms. , Ms. Brady is still active in women’s movements. Her more recent work can be found in â€Å"Greenpeace Magazine†6 and in the â€Å"Women’s Review of Books. â€Å"7 Through all these works and critical commentary on it, we can see her personal focus on making a strong case for the feminist cause. Much as her personal life informs her recent article in the â€Å"Women’s Review of Books,† Judy Brady appears to have drawn on her own experiences when she wrote â€Å"Why I Want a Wife. † In the essay, the author/narrator drives home the amount and type of work expected of wives both by situating herself as involved in some it and by listing qualifications. In my reading, the setting of the over-worked housewife will take the form of the narrator both being such a wife and of describing such as wife through mimicry. To indicate this setting, I will use actions to reinforce the narrator’s words. For example, at the beginning, in the clause â€Å"while I was ironing,† the narrator slips in that she thought through her argument while engaged in domestic labor. When I read that line, I will direct a look at the audience that conveys just how thrilled I am to be pressing clothes. Which is to say, my look will suggest that yet again, while I was doing one of my many thankless jobs, I was thinking about that â€Å"poor† guy. A second way I intend to suggest the setting is to give the audience a withering look while I use my right hand to pick up and put away imaginary things as I read the lines â€Å"I want a wife who will keep my house clean. A wife who will pick up after my children, a wife who will pick up after me. I want a wife who will keep my clothes clean, ironed, mended, replaced when need be, and who will see to it that my personal things are kept in their proper place so that I can find what I need the minute I need it. Later, to show the perfect wife being the perfect hostess, I will offer up imaginary hors d’oeuvres with a graceful sweep of my hand when read the clause â€Å"I want a wife who takes care of the needs of my guests so that they feel comfortable, who makes sure that they have an ashtray, that they are passed the hors d’oeuvres, that they are offered a second helping of the food, that their wine glasses are replenished when necessary, that their coffee is served t o them as they like it. The gracefulness of the movement will hopefully reinforce the wife-seekers conception of feminine social skills in addition to suggesting and mimicking an actual setting where hors d’oeuvres are being offered. Also, to follow up that line and to show that the coffee is just right, I will bring up my right hand, holding my fingers folded down, except for my thumb and index finger, which will be touching at the imaginary point of perfection. This movement will signify the (anal) expectations about a wife’s responsibilities. In all these ways the author's relationship to the setting supports the point of the essay through a performance of the character's satirical tone. As a character, the narrator has chosen to view these (anal) expectations in a humorous, satirical light. To show this mark of a sharp mind and wit, I will read every line in light mockery. This sweet little wifey has a biting way of deftly masking her meaning in false agreement. The criticisms of the narrator aren’t malicious, but they are satirical, and I hope to project that satire in my reading. I imagine the narrator as someone with self-confidence and poise, dignified even in undignified circumstances, and I plan to portray that by standing upright, neither puffed with arrogance nor slumped with despair. That is how I will stand, too, when I read the brief paragraph on replacing the hypothetical wife (â€Å"If, by chance, I find another person more suitable as a wife than the wife I already have, I want the liberty to replace my present wife with another one. Naturally, I will expect a fresh new life; my wife will take the children and be solely responsible for them so that I am left free. â€Å") For that paragraph, I will assume the tone of a martyr, as if the wife-seeker is sacrificing him(/her)self for the well-being of the universe. Also, to show the narrator as parodying the self-centered concerns of a wife-seeker, I will gesture toward myself, occasionally laying my hand below the base of my throat, throughout my reading. This movement will direct attention to the self who is self-centered and will be a trifle melodramatic, as can be expected of someone who is over-acting to make fun of another person’s selfishness. And, to further express the overall satire of the essay, I will try to keep the hint of a smirk (a dubious, critical smirk-not a self-satisfied one) on my face. This smirk should put a sarcastic edge on my reading as the character considers all the benefits of having a wife which she would like to enjoy. Thinking about and sarcastically expounding on the thankless duties expected of â€Å"good† wives is how I envision the development of this piece’s â€Å"action. † I plan to show this action of â€Å"Thinking† in several ways. One way is to pretend as though I, the narrator, think some of my ideas are super, such as â€Å"I want a wife who is a good nurturant attendant to my children, who arranges for their schooling, makes sure that they have an adequate social life with their peers, takes them to the park, the zoo, etc. â€Å"). I will try to keep a fake, bland smile on my face to suggest how nice, easy, and convenient it must be to be able to rely on someone else for such tasks. Another way I will demonstrate the narrator’s thought processes will be to act as though some of my ideas have just occurred to me, including the somewhat random â€Å"I want a wife who will type my papers for me when I have written them. † I will pause before that line and try to look thoughtful before coming to the revelation that that would be quite handy. An additional way to indicate the narrator’s thinking will be to vocally (not verbally) suggest that some of my ideas are onerous duties I have long since grown tired of doing, such as â€Å"When I meet people at school that I like and want to entertain, I want a wife who will have the house clean, will prepare a special meal, serve it to me and my friends, and not interrupt when I talk about things that interest me and my friends. † I will adopt a haughty, superior tone to deliberately imitate how I have been told, in effect, to lower myself. Showing this process of reflecting on the expectations for wives will help to foster the sense of mockery the narrator employs throughout her satirical litany. This satire and sarcasm is evident in the language used even at the beginning of the piece, and I plan to play it up. For example, when I read the second line (â€Å"I am A Wife. â€Å"), I will say â€Å"I amm†Ã¢â‚¬â€œholding the â€Å"M† slightly longer than necessary for emphasis-before I punctuating â€Å"A Wife† with a demure smile to indicate the sublime pleasure I derive from the this, the most fulfilling of feminine roles. Also on â€Å"A Wife,† I will lower my voice to further emphasize the depth and fullness of my appreciation for my position. I plan this obviously exaggerated infusion of wife-dom with positive connotations to set up the satirical attitude toward â€Å"wife† in the rest of the piece. . Some other ways I plan to use the language of the essay to drive home the narrator’s voice is to take advantage of the author’s locations of emphasis. In two places, the author has italicized â€Å"my† when she writes â€Å"my physical needs† and â€Å"my sexual needs. In those two places I will particularly stress â€Å"my† to reflect the intensity of the selfishness being described, and I will gesture toward myself. The author has also italicized the â€Å"good† in â€Å"I want a wife who cooks the meals, a wife who is a good cook. † I will vocally stress the â€Å"good† and I will make an â€Å"Mmmm† face (quick raising of my eyebrows while smiling with my lips closed) to reflect the author’s intentional emphasis. These actions should help to make the satirical intention of the speaker clear to the audience. Making the sarcasm/satire of the narrator clear to the audience will be an essential part of my performance. To introduce the sarcasm in the opening, I will look over the audience’s heads, almost at an imaginary star that represents how dreamy my life as a wife is and how happy I am at my good fortune of being married when I read the lines â€Å"I belong to that classification of people known as wives. I am A Wife. And, not altogether incidentally, I am a mother. Of course, this dreamy look will be an act on behalf of the narrator, who is making fun of anyone who actually believes that that is the sum of how she feels. In the next paragraph, I will look at the audience as I brace them for my diatribe. I will be giving them a semi-serious look, with my eyebrows raised in a quizzical way, that matches the narrator’s dry tone. From this look, the audience should infer that the narrator actually judges her friend, or people like the friend, much harsher than the words bein g used would imply. Further into the essay, there is the paragraph about sexual needs (â€Å"I want a wife who is sensitive to my sexual needs, a wife who makes love passionately and eagerly when I feel like it, a wife who makes sure that I am satisfied. And, of course, I want a wife who will not demand sexual attention when I am not in the mood for it. I want a wife who assumes the complete responsibility for birth control, because I do not want more children. I want a wife who will remain sexually faithful to me so that I do not have to clutter up my intellectual life with jealousies. And I want a wife who understands that my sexual needs may entail more than strict adherence to monogamy. I must, after all, be able to relate to people as fully as possible. â€Å") When I begin that paragraph, I will give the audience a saucy, playful look. Then, I will look eager (chin and eyebrows raised, expectant smile) when I speak of making love eagerly, and I will look stubborn (eyebrows lowered, negative shake of my head) for when I am â€Å"not in the mood. † Although I will have maintained appropriate eye-contact throughout the reading, at the end, with the final sentence (â€Å"My God, who wouldn’t want a wife? ), I will pin the audience with a piercing look, looking them straight in the eye, as if to say, â€Å"Well, duh! ,† when the narrator’s true voice finally speaks. These actions should connect the audience directly to the progression of thought and satire as the speaker leads up to and makes her strong concluding statement. Judy Brady has strong opinions about what shouldn’t be automatically presumed as a wife’s obligations. Her opinion influenced her essay â€Å"Why I Want a Wife†, wherein she introduces the reader to an overworked housewife’s reasons for wanting a wife of her own. This housewife/narrator cleverly uses language to comment on the condition of wives by verbally condoning what she actually despises. Because the audience will be able to pick up on her sarcasm, they will understand her unsaid message. Although it might be possible to construe Brady’s essay as a bitter diatribe against the injustice of the way some wives are subordinated, I prefer to read this piece as the humorous product of a sharp wit, almost like Jonathan Swift’s â€Å"A Modest Proposal. Usually, when I read over this essay, a smirk finds its way to my face-the same kind of smirk I feel starting when I think back to the proud phone call my family received after my newlywed sister Gini succeeded in making meatloaf all by herself. Maybe Gini was right in those days before her wedding when she anticipated that things would be different for her and Jason, and that the two of them would share household responsibilities. They seem to be equally experiencing the hazards o f cooking. Recently, Gini told us about a kitchen disaster that involved them both. Ace-chef that she is, Gini failed to notice that some fresh-from-the-freezer sauerkraut was burning one of her (wedding gift) pans. Jason came to the rescue, though, convinced that he could save the day with his superior knowledge that only inorganic chemicals can clean up burned organic materials. And so, he set about â€Å"desperately† trying the salvage the pan using Gini's nail polish remover. It does my heart good to know that the two of them work so well together in the kitchen. Although now I am torn about what to get them for Christmas: new cookware? Who knows, maybe I'll get them a restaurant gift certificate.